adjective - modifies, gives more information about a noun:
  •  red
  •  good
  •  real
Note: an adjective never modifies another adjective

adverb - modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
  • quickly
  • well
  • really

  • definite article - the - helps identify a noun as known
- He loves the dog.
  • indefinite article a,an - helps identify a noun as not known
- He wants a cat.

clause - a group of words containing a subject and conjugated verb and which are part of a larger sentence
  •  relative clause - also known as adjective clause and adverb clause; a clause which functions as an adjective or adverb does.
  •  subordinate clause - a clause which depends on the sentence to complete its meaning, and which cannot stand on its own.
  •  independent clause - a clause which could stand on its own.

conjugation - the action of changing a verb to reflect person and number:
  •  I swim
  •  he swims
  •  they swim

conjunction - a word which joins words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence:
  •  tea or coffee
  •  up hill and down dale
  •  He eats here because he likes my food.

form - the way a word is put together or spelled

function - the grammatical role a word plays within a sentence

gerund - verbal noun - it functions as a noun but retains some characteristics of the verb
  • Dogs love swimming.
  • Kids enjoy eating cookies.

infinitive - the form of the verb which is not conjugated. It can be used as a verbal noun
  • My cat loves to play.

noun - names a person, an animal, a thing, a place, an event, or an idea

object - the consequence or result of the action of the verb.
  • direct object answers who or what was the result of the action of the verb.
-Children love cookies.
  • indirect object answers to whom or what, or for whom or what the action was done:
- I gave my friend a hug.
  • object of the preposition shows the relationship between the preposition and its noun or pronoun
- under the table

participle - part of a verb which can be used with an auxiliary verb to create past tenses, express passive voice, progressive forms.

phrase - a group of words with either no subject or no conjugated verb

prepositional phrase - phrase beginning with a preposition:
  • over the hill

preposition - shows the relationship between an object (the object of a preposition) and other words in the sentence.
  • in my house

pronoun - stands in place of, replaces a noun
  • personal pronoun -  I, she, they - refers to people, things, or animals
  • demonstrative pronoun -  this, that, these, those - points out people, things, or animals
  • reflexive pronoun -  himself, ourselves, - refers back to the noun it replaces
  • relative pronoun -  who, whom, whose, what, that - begins relative clause, refers back to antecedent
  • possessive pronoun - yours, his, theirs - indicates ownership, possession
  • interrogative pronoun - who, whose - begins a question
  • indefinite pronoun -  some, any, something - refers to unspecified person, thing or animal

subject - names the topic, person or thing which is connected with the verb
  • Your friend drives very fast.

subject complement - the word or group of words that completes the sense of the subject when the sentence contains a
copulative verb such as
to be. It is not the same as a direct object, and is placed in the subjective or nominative case.

verb - describes an action, state of being or feeling
  • a transitive verb has an object eg: My father baked a cake.
  • an intransitive verb has no object eg: I slept very well last night.
  • tense - describes when the action or state occurs
  • mood - expresses the nature of the action or state, whether it is fact (indicative), hypothesis (subjunctive) or command
  • voice - active or passive voice indicates whether the subject performed the action or was the direct recipient of the action.