Example Abstract

This example, published in Drugs (2006;66(1):85-109), nicely demonstrates how to word an abstract.  In this
review, the authors describe a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, Pioglitazone.

Title:  Pioglitazone: a review of its use in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract:  Pioglitazone is an antihyperglycaemic agent that, in the presence of insulin resistance, increases hepatic
and peripheral insulin sensitivity, thereby inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral and
splanchnic glucose uptake. Pioglitazone is generally well tolerated, weight gain and oedema are the most common
emergent adverse events, and there are no known drug interactions between pioglitazone and other drugs. In
clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, pioglitazone as monotherapy, or in combination with
metformin, repaglinide, insulin or a sulphonylurea, induced both long- and short-term improvements in glycaemic
control and serum lipid profiles. Pioglitazone was also effective in reducing some measures of cardiovascular risk
and arteriosclerosis. Pioglitazone thus offers an effective treatment option for the management of patients with type
2 diabetes.
Another Example Abstract

This example, published in The New England Journal of Medicine (Volume 351:217-228,  January 15, 2004  
Number 3), nicely demonstrates how to word an abstract for a clinical report.  In this report, the authors describe
the results of a study comparing two different drug regimens to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1
in Thailand.

Title:  Single-Dose Perinatal Nevirapine plus Standard Zidovudine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission
of HIV-1 in Thailand

Joel E. Gallant, M.D., M.P.H., Edwin DeJesus, M.D., José R. Arribas, M.D., Anton L. Pozniak, M.D., Brian
Gazzard, M.D., Rafael E. Campo, M.D., Biao Lu, Ph.D., Damian McColl, Ph.D., Steven Chuck, M.D., Jeffrey
Enejosa, M.D., John J. Toole, M.D., Ph.D., Andrew K. Cheng, M.D., Ph.D., for the Study 934 Group


Although zidovudine prophylaxis decreases the rate of transmission of the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) type 1 substantially, a large number of infants still become
infected. We hypothesized that the administration, in addition to zidovudine, of a single
dose of oral nevirapine to mothers during labor and to neonates would further reduce
transmission of HIV.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of three treatment regimens in Thai
women who were receiving zidovudine therapy during the third trimester of pregnancy.
In one group, mothers and infants received a single dose of nevirapine (nevirapine–
nevirapine regimen); in another, mothers and infants received nevirapine and placebo,
respectively (nevirapine–placebo regimen); and in the last, mothers and infants received
placebo (placebo–placebo regimen). The infants also received one week of zidovudine
therapy and were formula-fed. The end point of the study was infection with HIV in the
infants, established by virologic testing.

Between January 15, 2001, and February 28, 2003, a total of 1844 Thai women were enrolled.
At the first interim analysis, the independent data monitoring committee stopped
enrollment in the placebo–placebo group. Among women who delivered before the interim
analysis, the as-randomized Kaplan–Meier estimates of the transmission rates
were 1.1 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 2.2) in the nevirapine–nevirapine
group and 6.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 8.9) in the placebo–placebo
group (P<0.001). The final per-protocol transmission rate in the nevirapine–nevirapine
group, 1.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 3.0), was not significantly
inferior to the rate in the nevirapine–placebo group (2.8 percent; 95 percent
confidence interval, 1.5 to 4.1). Nevirapine had an effect within subgroups defined by
known risk factors such as viral load and CD4 count. No serious adverse effects were associated
with nevirapine therapy.

A single dose of nevirapine to the mother, with or without a dose of nevirapine to the infant,
added to oral zidovudine prophylaxis starting at 28 weeks’ gestation, is highly effective
in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
A neutral Title is
appropriate for a review
Abstract concisely states
TS in the last sentence.
Key clinical factors
succintly summarized.
Writing Resources Home
A neutral Title is
appropriate for this
journal (NEJM).
Concisely states study
results in one sentence
Background and
hypothesis succintly
Writing Resources
Important to state end
point in a drug study.
Results presented in
logical order, showing
either nevirapine group
faired better than the
placebo–placebo group.