adjective - modifies, gives more information about a noun:
Note: an adjective never modifies another adjective
adverb - modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
- He loves the dog.
- definite article - the - helps identify a noun as known
- He wants a cat.
- indefinite article a,an - helps identify a noun as not known
clause - a group of words containing a subject and conjugated verb and which are part of a larger sentence
- relative clause - also known as adjective clause and adverb clause; a clause which functions as an adjective or adverb does.
- subordinate clause - a clause which depends on the sentence to complete its meaning, and which cannot stand on its own.
- independent clause - a clause which could stand on its own.
conjugation - the action of changing a verb to reflect person and number:
- I swim
- he swims
- they swim
conjunction - a word which joins words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence:
- tea or coffee
- up hill and down dale
- He eats here because he likes my food.
form - the way a word is put together or spelled
function - the grammatical role a word plays within a sentence
gerund - verbal noun - it functions as a noun but retains some characteristics of the verb
- Dogs love swimming.
- Kids enjoy eating cookies.
infinitive - the form of the verb which is not conjugated. It can be used as a verbal noun
noun - names a person, an animal, a thing, a place, an event, or an idea
object - the consequence or result of the action of the verb.
-Children love cookies.
- direct object answers who or what was the result of the action of the verb.
- I gave my friend a hug.
- indirect object answers to whom or what, or for whom or what the action was done:
- under the table
- object of the preposition shows the relationship between the preposition and its noun or pronoun
participle - part of a verb which can be used with an auxiliary verb to create past tenses, express passive voice, progressive forms.
phrase - a group of words with either no subject or no conjugated verb
prepositional phrase - phrase beginning with a preposition:
preposition - shows the relationship between an object (the object of a preposition) and other words in the sentence.
pronoun - stands in place of, replaces a noun
- personal pronoun - I, she, they - refers to people, things, or animals
- demonstrative pronoun - this, that, these, those - points out people, things, or animals
- reflexive pronoun - himself, ourselves, - refers back to the noun it replaces
- relative pronoun - who, whom, whose, what, that - begins relative clause, refers back to antecedent
- possessive pronoun - yours, his, theirs - indicates ownership, possession
- interrogative pronoun - who, whose - begins a question
- indefinite pronoun - some, any, something - refers to unspecified person, thing or animal
subject - names the topic, person or thing which is connected with the verb
- Your friend drives very fast.
subject complement - the word or group of words that completes the sense of the subject when the sentence contains a
copulative verb such as to be. It is not the same as a direct object, and is placed in the subjective or nominative case.
verb - describes an action, state of being or feeling
- a transitive verb has an object eg: My father baked a cake.
- an intransitive verb has no object eg: I slept very well last night.
- tense - describes when the action or state occurs
- mood - expresses the nature of the action or state, whether it is fact (indicative), hypothesis (subjunctive) or command
- voice - active or passive voice indicates whether the subject performed the action or was the direct recipient of the action.