Transitional Words and Phrases

Link sentences using transitional words and phrases that guide the reader's thinking.  Transitional words and
phrases can be grouped into categories including addition, consequence, summary, contrast and comparison,
similarity, and diversion.  The following contains lists of transitional words and phrases for each category, with
specific examples.

Addition

also                                         
furthermore                               
moreover                                  
too                                           
in fact

These words alert the reader that the new sentence contains an idea that adds to the thought in the preceding
sentence.

Example:  Kainate was not neurotoxic to cells treated with IGF-I.  Furthermore, these cells were much larger
than control neurons.

These two sentences came from a paragraph in which the author discusses neuroprotective features of IGF-1.  
Kainate toxicity - a type of cell death triggered by neurotransmitters - was prevented, and even before the
experiment began, the cells treated with IGF-1 appeared healthier than control neurons that had not received
the hormone.

Consequence

accordingly                             
consequently                           
otherwise                                
therefore                                                 
thereupon                                
as a consequence                    

These words alert the reader that the new sentence contains an idea that adds to the thought in the preceding
sentence.

Example:  Wortmannin blocked the activation of PDK and P6K by IGF-I.  Consequently, kainate toxicity
developed 5-6 days following the medium switch.

Summary

after all                                   
in any case                                   
in conclusion                               
in the final analysis                 
finally                                 

These words alert the reader that the new sentence contains an idea that is dependent on the thought in the
preceding sentence.

Example:  Wortmannin blocked the activation of PDK and P6K by IGF-I.  To summarize, IGF-I operates
through a signal cascade involving PDK and P6K.

Contrast and comparison

contrast                             
conversely                                 
similarly                             
in contrast                         
in comparison                   

These words alert the reader that the new sentence contains an idea that is compared to the thought in the
preceding sentence.

Example:  Wortmannin blocked the activation of PDK and P6K by IGF-I.  By contrast, the MAPK inhibitor
SB202190 did not.

Generalizing

as a rule                                
for the most part                   
generally speaking                
usually

These words alert the reader that the new sentence summarizes a topic, but comprimises this statement with
some degree of uncertainty, or is always true (as a rule).

Similarity

likewise                                
moreover                             
also                                      

These words alert the reader that the new sentence contains an idea that is similar to the previous sentence.
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Previous
Avoid using 'and',
because some
sentences may seem
incomplete.
Very useful at the end
of paragraphs,
especially to create a
sentence easily linked
to the next.
Writing MS Guide Home

besides
in addition
again
indeed















as a result
hence
so then                                 
thus                                               because
of                  
finally









all in all        
in any event            
in short              
to summarize     
indeed









by the same token
rather        
nevertheless
in spite of
whereas









as usual
generally
ordinarily







similar
similarly
too