Pronouns offer the writer flexibility in linking sentences. When used carefully, a pronoun avoids the distracting properties of repetition. If you write of a disease by name in a sentence, you might start the next by writing 'This disease'.
End of Paragraph A Thus, IGF-I prevents kainate neurotoxicity from developing in cortical neurons by activating p70S6K and protein synthesis. Beginning of Paragraph B These results support the hypothesis that IGF-I prevents kainate neurotoxicity by stimulating translation of SOD1, thereby decreasing levels of ROS.
However, by sure that the reader understands the subject or object to which the pronouns refers, because pronouns do not distinguish between similar ideas, nouns, etc. Even writing 'the latter' to make a precise distinction causes the reader to momentarily pause and consider the former as well.
Cortical neurons express calcium-impermeable kainate receptors early in development, while striatal neurons continue to express these receptors in the adult. The latter neurons are not susceptible to kainate excitotoxicity.